Hawthorn flowers, also known as Crataegus, are beautiful and unique blooms. Here are some interesting facts about hawthorn flowers:

  1. Appearance: Hawthorn flowers are typically small and white, but they can also be pink or red. They grow in clusters known as corymbs, which consist of multiple flowers grouped together.
  2. Fragrance: Many hawthorn flowers have a pleasant fragrance that is often described as sweet and delicate.
  3. Symbolism: Hawthorn flowers have been associated with various meanings and symbols throughout history. They are often seen as a symbol of hope, fertility, and happiness. In some cultures, hawthorn flowers are believed to bring good luck and protect against evil spirits.
  4. Medicinal Uses: Hawthorn flowers have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. They are believed to have various health benefits, particularly for the heart and circulatory system. Hawthorn is often used to support cardiovascular health, improve blood circulation, and regulate blood pressure.
  5. Wildlife Attraction: Hawthorn flowers are known to attract a wide variety of wildlife, including bees, butterflies, and birds. The flowers provide nectar and pollen for bees and butterflies, while the fruits (known as haws) that develop after the flowers bloom are a valuable food source for birds and small mammals.
  6. Growing Conditions: Hawthorn flowers are commonly found in temperate regions around the world. They prefer well-drained soil and are often found growing in hedgerows, woodlands, and along the edges of fields. Hawthorn trees are known for their thorny branches and can reach heights of 5 to 15 meters (16 to 49 feet).
  7. Folklore and Mythology: Hawthorn flowers have a rich history in folklore and mythology. In Celtic traditions, hawthorn trees were considered sacred and were associated with fairies and supernatural beings. In some cultures, it was believed that bringing hawthorn flowers indoors would bring bad luck or even death.
  8. Cultural Significance: Hawthorn flowers have been celebrated in various cultural festivals and traditions. In May, the flowering of hawthorn trees is associated with the Celtic festival of Beltane, which marks the beginning of summer. In some countries, such as Ireland, hawthorn trees are protected and considered sacred.

It’s worth noting that while hawthorn flowers have many positive attributes and associations, it’s always important to exercise caution and consult with a healthcare professional before using any plants for medicinal purposes.


The Stonechat (Saxicola torquatus) is a small passerine bird species that belongs to the family Muscicapidae. It is native to the United Kingdom and can be found across the country, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The stonechat is a migratory bird, with some individuals migrating to southern Europe or North Africa during the winter months.

Some key characteristics for stonechat include:

  1. Appearance: The male stonechat has a distinct appearance with a black head, orange-red breast, and a white collar. Its back is dark brown, and the tail is black. Females have similar markings but are less vibrant, with a brown head and a paler breast.
  2. Habitat: Stonechats prefer open habitats such as heathlands, moorlands, coastal areas, and scrublands. They can also be found in parks, gardens, and farmlands.
  3. Behavior: Stonechats are known for their distinctive call, which sounds like two stones being tapped together. They are territorial birds and often perch on exposed branches or fence posts, from where they can spot insects and small invertebrates to feed on. They are agile and can hover briefly while hunting.
  4. Breeding: Stonechats typically breed between March and July. The male performs a courtship display by singing and flying around its territory. The female constructs a cup-shaped nest made of grass, moss, and other vegetation in a dense bush or low vegetation. The female usually lays four to six eggs, which are incubated for about two weeks.
  5. Conservation status: The UK stonechat is not considered globally threatened, but its populations have experienced some declines in the past due to habitat loss and changes in land management practices. However, it remains a relatively common and widespread species in the United Kingdom.

Rush Pasture

Rush pasture refers to a type of grazing land or pasture that is dominated by grasses and rushes. Rushes are herbaceous plants that typically grow in wet or marshy areas, and they are characterized by their long, slender leaves and hollow stems.

In rush pastures, the vegetation consists of a mix of grasses and rushes, with the rushes being more prevalent. The composition of rush pastures can vary depending on the specific location and climate. These pastures are often found in low-lying areas, near rivers, or in wetlands where the soil is frequently saturated or damp.

Rush pastures can provide forage for livestock, particularly in areas where other types of pasture grasses may struggle to grow due to excess moisture. The rushes in rush pastures are typically hardy and can tolerate wet conditions, making them a valuable resource for grazing animals in such environments.

It’s important to note that rush pastures may not be as productive as other types of pastures in terms of forage quality and quantity. However, they can still serve as a valuable grazing resource, especially in areas where land with better drainage is limited or unavailable.

Overall, rush pastures are a specific type of grazing land characterized by the dominance of grasses and rushes, and they are commonly used for livestock grazing in wet or marshy areas.

Rush pasture is always a good place to record breeding skylarks…

Pied Flycatchers in Cumbria

The use of artificial nest boxes by pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) is a well-documented phenomenon. These small passerine birds readily accept and utilize nest boxes.

The pied flycatcher’s natural breeding habitat includes old-growth deciduous forests with suitable tree cavities for nesting. However, due to habitat loss, competition with other cavity-nesting species, and the decline of natural nest sites, artificial nest boxes have become increasingly important for their breeding success.

Nest boxes designed specifically for pied flycatchers typically mimic natural tree cavities, providing a small enclosed space with an entrance hole of appropriate size. These boxes are typically mounted on trees at suitable heights and orientations, following recommended guidelines for their placement.

Research studies have shown that pied flycatchers readily adopt and successfully breed in artificial nest boxes. These boxes provide them with a safe and protected environment, reducing predation risks and enhancing their reproductive success. They also help to alleviate the shortage of suitable natural nest sites.

Artificial nest box programs are often implemented as part of conservation efforts for pied flycatchers and other cavity-nesting species. Monitoring the use of these nest boxes can provide valuable data on population trends, breeding success, and other aspects of their ecology, aiding in conservation planning and management strategies

Pied Flycatchers in nest box, Hawkshead 01.06.23

Natural Capital

Natural capital refers to the stock of natural resources, ecosystems, and services that provide valuable benefits to human beings and the planet as a whole. It encompasses all elements of nature, such as air, water, minerals, forests, wetlands, biodiversity, and other renewable and non-renewable resources.

The concept of natural capital recognizes that the natural environment has inherent value and provides essential goods and services that support human well-being and economic activities. These services, often referred to as ecosystem services, include things like clean air and water, pollination of crops, climate regulation, soil fertility, and recreational opportunities, among others.

The idea behind natural capital is to recognize and account for the value of these ecological resources and services in economic and development decision-making. By assigning a value to natural capital, it becomes possible to integrate environmental considerations into economic systems and policies. This approach aims to promote sustainable development by ensuring that the benefits provided by nature are adequately considered, protected, and sustainably managed.

Valuing natural capital involves quantifying and assessing the ecological, economic, and social benefits provided by ecosystems and natural resources. This can be challenging, as many of these benefits are not traditionally bought or sold in markets, and their value is often not fully appreciated until they are degraded or lost. However, various methodologies and tools have been developed to estimate and account for the value of natural capital, such as ecosystem valuation techniques and natural capital accounting frameworks.

The concept of natural capital is closely linked to the broader idea of sustainable development, which seeks to balance economic growth, social well-being, and environmental stewardship. By recognizing and incorporating the value of nature into decision-making, natural capital approaches aim to promote more sustainable and responsible practices that support both human needs and the long-term health of the planet.